How_to_play_gg_82 - game rules
Chess – according to the book by H.J.Murray "The History of Chess", the game was created in India at the end of the 6th century. It spread rapidly in Persia, where it became extremely popular. After the Arabic conquest of Persia the game spread all over the continent and numerous new rules were added. Chess reached Europe in the 11th century, first in Spain, Italy and France, later Scandinavian countries. The game reached Russia directly from the East in the 12th century. According to the hints in the literature, the game reached Poland at the time of Bolesław Krzywousty’s reign. On the European continent the game bloomed in the 16th century. The main reason was the rule change suggested by Italian Chess players. It referred to two figures. The possibility of the Bishop moves was also extended, as well as the power of the Queen was increased from one diagonal move to any number of moves in any directions. A move called castling also appeared, as well as cross capturing of a Pawn and pawn exchange. The present game rules were established in 1952 at the 23rd International Chess Association Congress in Stockholm. In 1497 the first chess manual appeared, followed by another ones. Nowadays the chess literature comprises thousands of books, magazines about the games, tournaments, etc. It is the source of knowledge for the game fans all over the world.